Wednesday saw our third day at the school. And it was the first time of year the sun came fully over the horizon (we had a long discussion on what “the sun coming up” meant). Again I walked to the School, for no other reason than to say I did. It was -27c but with a bit of a breeze blowing it was -34c windchill. Gear worked well but eyelashes iced up again.. Fun! Walter was kind enough to give us a failed radiosonde unit which The Teacher asked me to present to the class. I was a bit rough to begin with but after repeating it five times I got good at using it to get the students to think of the atmosphere in three dimensions.
It also allowed me to link the ARM site to them and their community and to underline the global importance of the work done there. I am hoping Argonne and ARM can build on the connections we are making in this community. Today’s lesson was about abstraction. The students had a series of numbers on a grid and were asked to see if they saw a pattern. Most could not which allowed the teacher to prompt “how can we make the patterns easier to see”. Each of the five classes arrived at the conclusion (with varying speed) that they needed to color code the numbers.
And with that 8th graders were being taught about scientific visualization! We also had the privilege of hearing more about Kevin’s time on the ice with the people of Utqiagvik.
Ice that piles up with an onshore wind (see a previous post) actually anchors this ice to shore. This is vital for the hunters in the town and also for wildlife. It was great seeing the sun come back! We even stepped outside at 1:30pm (just after sunrise) to use the light to get a group shot. School had early dismissal so we had a great hour at the Iñupiat Heritage Center. It was great seeing how the four whaling families had passed down traditions. In fact a lot of the last names were very familiar including a previously mentioned site operator!
It was a strange twist of fate that Concord ended up building a relationship with a teacher who is based on the North Slope. One of the key sites for the ARM Research Facility is also located in Utqiagvik. Given the spareness of observations in the Arctic and given the key interplay between ice, ocean clouds and climate Utqiagvik is an ideal location for furthering DoE ARM’s mission of improving the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. The team at Sandia helped us work with Walter Brower, who operates the site (which is run by a native owned corporation) to arrange a site tour for myself and my education research colleagues. I have visited the ARM site in Oklahoma before, which is a sprawling complex with many staff. I was struck how Walter and one a few other people keep this key facility ship shape! One instrument I really wanted to see is the X-Band radar (X-SAPR) which I have responsibility, in my role as Translator, for maximizing the science from (through software, retrievals and helping PIs. Great to see the work the radar mentor team, led by Nitin Bharadwaj, had put into this unique instrument.
After seeing the X-SAPR Walter took us on a drive past the maintenance facilities which are located in an area run by the Ukpeagvik Inupiat Corporation where there is a college specifically designed to meet the needs of the community, and out into the great white expanse of the frozen Tundra. The site itself is a few miles out of town (on a road the team must clear and keep open themselves!). And this is the beauty of it: You have an expanse of ice, free of structures which can create issues, perfect representation of a “grid cell” of an atmospheric simulation over an expanse of ice. Perfect for testing science questions aligned with ARM’s mission. The main instrumentation is on the Great White platform, an otherworldly structure anchored in the permafrost with every instrument conceivable!
Heading to the warmth inside the Great White enclosure we saw the modern instrumentation and cyber infrastructure needed to get the massive amounts of data on the atmospheric column back to the ARM Data Center.
Walter stepped us through a number of measurements being taken over the site. Some of the most seemingly mundane but vital to the long term mission of ARM are the key components of Meteorology (which The Teacher is teaching the middle school students: Temperature, winds and moisture). ARM has a 40 meter high tower with probes at 2, 10, 20 and 40 meters so see how the atmosphere is “layered” close to the surface. As I mentioned in a previous post, the layering is completely different to the ARM site in Oklahoma due to the lack of solar heating. And that brings me to one more instrument, the balloon borne sounding! It sounds simple but is hard to achieve, attach a sensor to a balloon, let it fly through the sky, and transmit measurements back to the site via UHF. These balloons are launched at 5 and 17 UTC (8am and 8pm Local) and compliment the NWS soundings from the airport at 0 and 12 UTC and they all are used to spin up the weather simulations that are used in your local forecast.. So next time you hear about a polar outbreak on the 6 o’clock news thank, but do not blame, the ARM Research Facility in Utqiagvik! Out heartfelt thanks to Walter who took so much time to show us around and for being so generous with his local knowledge. Site operators like Walter make grand scale science in the national interest possible!
After hearing that the teacher we are working with, walks to and from school I decided to give it a shot this morning! And it was a nice mild one for it at only -25ºc (-13F). The route is 0.8 miles, but I took a wrong turn and ended up walking to the east of the School. That was a little intimidating as it became a little more rural and polar bears were foremost in my mind (my heart rate was nice and high for the walk). In the end I did just over a mile on Strava. A nice way to start the day. The only real failure was not equipment, it was, as my eyes watered a bit in the cold, my eyelashes developed quite the ice accumulation making it hard to blink.
We observed one class in the morning and had some discussions on how the students were learning pattern recognition. Since I had so much fun walking to School (beats the hotel treadmill) I decided to do a repeat performance and walk home! The whole thing seems so novel to a lower 48 ‘er like me but folks here were going on like normal, kids getting off the school bus. We had freezing fog today so even at 1:30pm the light was dull. But, good news, THE SUN COMES BACK TOMORROW! I hope the fog clears enough for us to see it!
Our first day started (can’t use the word dawned) clear and cold! -26ºc which was nice and bracing as we waited for our cab at the hotel. We drove through the frost streets of Utqiagvik to the the local Middle School. The School’s namesake was a born and raised in Utqiagvik (named Barrow back then) and led the efforts to found the North Slope Borough. This essentially (from my reading) put the power of governing into the hands of the native Iñupiat people (I hope I am not messing up the history too much!).
We were welcomed warmly by the office staff and signed in. Making our way to the teacher we are working with. I need to refer to him as “The Teacher” due to sensitivities. I was struck how “normal” the school is. That is how similar it is to my Daughter’s school in the Chicago ‘burbs. Living on the edge of the continent! The Teacher’s classroom has two areas, a classic “desk area” at the front and lab tables at the back with a clear space. Today we were covering the experiential learning component of the curriculum with students carrying out at exercise designed to understand how data is distributed over a geographic area. We saw 5 classes experience the same class (The Teacher teaches all science classes for 8th grade.
It was fantastic watching the students interact and learn as well as the diversity of learning styles. In some of our downtime I had the privilege of talking to The Teacher about native weather knowledge, something I aim to learn more about on this trip. He emphasized how important winds are to the Iñupiat people when they are out on the ice hunting (yes.. on the ice…) If the winds blow to hard on-shore the ice presses together and ridges. If the wind blows too hard off-shore the ice pulls apart and forms voids. The person in charge of the hunt keeps a careful eye on the winds and when they sense that there is a change coming it is time to go!
Time flies when you are teaching fun! The day was soon over giving Meridith and John some time to discuss lessons learned with The Teacher. It was great watching education specialists going deep into how students learn. I was also in awe of the packed schedule at the school! I don’t think I would be so erudite after teaching 5+ back-to-back classes! Back in a taxi to the Hotel, dinner and debrief, a quick workout (after basically sitting all day) and its time for blog and bed!
It’s 5:35am in the morning, it is dark, but this is just a construct. Because it is 8:35am in Chicago and “light” is from around 11am to 1am, a twilight I now call day, it really makes no difference. We arrived at noon yesterday and this gave us a fantastic opportunity to become aquatinted with our temporary home and to understand a bit more about the community we are working in and the environment is which they live.
Honestly, I was bracing myself for it to be much darker that it was! The twilight gives you a very nice pre-sunrise light, plenty to see a lot of detail. There is a constant layer of blowing snow (which plays havoc with ARM instrumentation) which made flash photography very challenging. After checking into our hotel (aptly named Top of The World) and grabbing lunch we kitted up and explored. Utqiagvik (Barrow) sits on Arctic tundra, too cold for trees to survive hear. The tundra has a layer of permafrost, a layer of soil that does not melt over the summer. So buildings are built on short stilts. I still need to get my head around Arctic meteorology (one reason why ARM is here: it is hard!) but we are getting a mix of light snow and blowing snow from some thin liquid layer clouds. Fascinating given the Beaufort Sea is completely frozen over.
We walked to the local store and did the very touristy thing of looking at the prices of produce. Things are expensive as everything is flown in. A nice aspect of Utqiagvik is the food, plenty of options. We caught a cab to Sammy and Lee’s for some Chinese food. There were pictures of the family all around the place. Very homely, you can see there is a sense of community in this, the northernmost outpost of the United States of America. Sea to Frozen Sea!
We made it! Thanks to the work of ground crews at O’Hare we managed to get out only a little late from Chicago. A smooth flight saw the team (Myself, Meridith Bruozas and John Domyancich) in Denver where we connected for the 5 and a half hour to Anchorage. Lots of interesting folks on the flight, from ice road truckers to many involved in the energy industry.
Stunning approach over the bay (assumedly the Anchorage in Anchorage) with circular sea ice and amazing mountains. Trees in Anchorage were all white due to a freezing fog. At the recommendation of hotel staff we headed to a local spot. Folks in Alaska are very friendly with a comforting casualness. Like the midwest turned up to 11. We overnighted in Anchorage as our flight was not until the next morning.
A little about the team, I am acting as a domain expert on a curriculum development team. John and Meridith are the education geniuses from Educational Programs and Outreach. Meridith is the manager of the group (~12 folks) and John is the Learning Center Lead. An area John and Meridith are established experts in is developing education research around computational thinking. This is not computer science, more how students can be taught to solve problems algorithmically. This blog will cover our project, Precipitating Change in more detail later. Our flight from Anchorage to Utqiagvik is part of a “mail run” a multi-hop trip. We are the second “hop” after a stop at Prudhoe Bay. Flying into Deadhorse airport was like landing on a alien planet. Prudhoe is home to the largest oil field in the USA. It looks like a outpost on Hoth!
At Deadhorse we let some new workers off and a crew rotating out came on board for the loop back to Anchorage via Barrow and Fairbanks. It was a quick, less than one hour to fly west by northwest (another 1.2 degrees north) to Utqiagvik. We landed in a thin mist. Full kudos to our pilots, I have no idea how they tell the white of the sky from the white of the cold hard ground.
With a quick taxi the plane came to a stop just outside a small terminal. And with that we walked out into the Great White. Many of the passengers disembarked here, and it is clear this flight has a very high checked luggage ratio. With so much being flown in produce is very expensive in Utqiagvik so the locals returning from trips had many totes full of goods. So we are here! Now begins the process of learning and learning about learning at the top of the world.
Remarkably we seem to be making it out of O’Hare. 4 inches measured at the official Clarendon Hills site (a stick in my yard) but United ground crews are working hard to get our plane boarded.. A 1:45 layover in Denver has me hoping our de-icing goes smooth.. Lots of ice on this plane… I don’t like traveling on weekends if I can avoid it, but if I did not I would only be in Utqiagvik for two days. Meridith has, very thoughtfully, procured a bag of fruit we are taking up. Like us, everything in Utqiagvik is flow in and out in the winter and most of the summer. So everything is expensive and fresh produce is rare. Its a shame I will not get any last sun before the northern journey. But here is hoping we get a few clearer nights and see some Aurora (bucket list for me!). Camera gear is all packed but I have no idea how it will work in the cold. Next dispatch from Alaska!
Could the trip be nixed even before it begins? A low pressure system is surging out of the south drawing up warm moist air. And Chicago is right where that air and cold air from where I am going (the Arctic) are meeting! What’s worse is the low is making the winds turn North Easterly on Saturday. This means the wind will come of a nice body of water around 36F turning on a lake snow machine! Usually I would be egging this bad boy on, but I have a flight to Denver connecting to Anchorage leaving at 8:50am.. Will I even get to go North after all?
Current North American Model forecasts a total of just on 10 inches between snowfall start and my flight’s departure time. I am hoping that I am on a 757-300 will mean: Its a bigger plane, less prone to weather delays AND a harder decision to cancel as a fill 757-300 is a lot harder to re-accommodate than, say, a small regional jet. (Probably not how this works, but its my blog and I am sticking to it). To make matters worse (or better for snow lovers who don’t need to catch a flight) there is an isothermal (same temperature) layer around 1.5km high at around -10ºc. This is the ideal temperature for transferring water out of the atmosphere (water vapor) into snowflakes (called a dendritic growth layer). This is weather geek speak for ITS GUNNA SNOW HARD. So now I place my hopes on a missed forecast, which is entirely possible as this all hinges on the model nailing the trajectory of the low pressure system. Hardly a given at this time of year. Small errors in low location changes the surface winds considerably and could nix this whole system. Here is hoping! (sorry snow lovers). Graphics come from the College of DuPage’s Nexlab. Kudos folks!
The motivation for starting this blog is to have a creative outlet for long form content. This was nucleated by a work trip to Utqiagvik (Barrow) Alaska on a project we are sub-contracting to the Concord Consortium on an NSF eduction grant called Precipitating Change. So what is so exciting about Barrow Alaska? For starters it is home to an ARM Research site, the Northernmost of its fixed network. Second it is the Northern-most city in the United States at 71.29 North, well above the Arctic circle. Yes, it will be dark the whole time we are there.. Well we will get some twilight.
And this makes for some very interesting meteorology. In places where the sun comes up we are used to the normal daily dance of the ground heating up and an equilibrium developing between warm air at the surface and colder air above. There are eddys that form that transport heat that develop a change in temperature with height (~1 degree per 100 meters). But no sun = some very funky temperature profiles! This effectively decouples layers of the atmosphere from the surface allowing for great cloud structures as talked about by Dr Joseph Hardinat last years ERAD.
More on the great weather (it’s actually looking ok for our trip with temperatures when we land around -19ºC) later. This trip is to observe 8th graders at the North Slop Borough Middle School interact with a curriculum we have been developing. The key to the curriculum: using the weather to teach computational thinking. Students observe weather phenomena, specifically large-scale circulations (Highs, Lows, Fronts), how they move and build forecasting rules of thumb. They reason out what should happen next at their location: Should it get warmer? Colder? Wetter? Dryer? Our plucky team (part of the larger project) is led by Meridith Bruozas from Educational Programs and Outreach at Argonne National Lab. I am not an education expert.. but I do ok at outreach. So this is new territory for me, both professionally and geographically. I am uncomfortable and I could not be happier!